Łyżwiarstwo szybkie na Zimowych Igrzyskach Olimpijskich Młodzieży 2016

Zawody w łyżwiarstwie szybkim na Zimowych Igrzyskach Olimpijskich Młodzieży 2016 odbędą się w dniach 13 – 19 lutego 2016 roku.
Zawodnicy i zawodniczki walczyć będą w czterech konkurencjach: w biegu na 500 m

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, 1500 m, starcie masowym i sztafecie mieszanej. Łącznie rozdanych zostanie siedem kompletów medali. Zawody odbywały się w Hamar na torze Vikingskipet.
Biathlon • Biegi narciarskie • Bobsleje • Curling • Hokej na lodzie • Kombinacja norweska • Łyżwiarstwo figurowe • Łyżwiarstwo szybkie • Narciarstwo alpejskie • Narciarstwo dowolne • Saneczkarstwo • Short track • Skeleton • Skoki narciarskie • Snowboard
Zimowe igrzyska olimpijskie młodzieży • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów w narciarstwie klasycznym • Winter X Games 20
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata • Puchar Świata (Östersund, Hochfilzen, Pokljuka, Ruhpolding (1)

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, Ruhpolding (2), Anterselva, Canmore, Presque Isle, Chanty-Mansyjsk) • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa Ameryki Północnej • Mistrzostwa Ameryki Południowej • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • World Team Challenge • Puchar IBU • Puchar Ameryki Północnej • Letnie mistrzostwa świata • Letnie mistrzostwa Ameryki Północnej • Mistrzostwa Polski • Letnie mistrzostwa Polski • Mistrzostwa Polski na nartorolkach
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata (Ruka Triple, Lillehammer, Davos, Toblach

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, Tour de Ski, Planica, Nové Město na Moravě, Drammen, Oslo, Sztokholm, Falun, Lahti, Ski Tour Kanada) • Puchar Słowiański • Puchar Australii i Nowej Zelandii • Puchar Ameryki Północnej • Puchar Bałkański • Puchar Europy Wschodniej • Puchar Skandynawii • Puchar Dalekowschodni • US Super Tour • Puchar Alpejski • FIS Worldloppet Cup • Mistrzostwa świata w biegach na nartorolkach • Puchar Świata na Nartorolkach • Mistrzostwa Polski
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata • Puchar Europy • Puchar Ameryki Północnej
Sezon 2015/2016 w curlingu • ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata mężczyzn • Mistrzostwa świata kobiet • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Mistrzostwa świata seniorów • Mistrzostwa świata par mieszanych • Mistrzostwa świata w curlingu na wózkach • Continental Cup • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa Europy mikstów • Mistrzostwa Azji i Strefy Pacyfiku • Europejski Challenge juniorów • Mistrzostwa Azji i Strefy Pacyfiku juniorów • World Curling Tour • the Brier • SToH • Mistrzostwa Polski (2015 • 2016) • Mistrzostwa Polski juniorów (2015 • 2016)
Sezon 2015/2016 w hokeju na lodzie • ZIOM • Kwalifikacje ZIO mężczyzn • Kwalifikacje ZIO kobiet • Mistrzostwa świata (Elita • I Dywizja • II Dywizja • III Dywizja) • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów (Elita • I Dywizja • II Dywizja • III Dywizja) • Mistrzostwa świata U18 (Elita • I Dywizja • II Dywizja • III Dywizja) • Mistrzostwa świata kobiet (I Dywizja • II Dywizja • Kwalifikacje do II dywizji) • Mistrzostwa świata juniorek (Elita • I Dywizja • Kwalifikacje do I Dywizji) • Azjatycki Puchar Challenge (Top Dywizja • I Dywizja) • Azjatycki Puchar Challenge Kobiet (Top Dywizja • I Dywizja) • Azjatycki Puchar Challenge Juniorów • Euro Hockey Tour (Karjala Cup • Channel One Cup) • Euro Hockey Challenge • Euro Ice Hockey Challenge • Liga Mistrzów • Puchar Kontynentalny • Puchar Spenglera • Puchar Tatrzański • Deutschland Cup • Memorial Cup • Mistrzostwa krajowe: USA/Kanada • USA (2 liga) • Rosja • Rosja (2 liga) • Rosja (3 liga) • Rosja (juniorzy) • Szwecja • Finlandia • Szwajcaria • Czechy • Słowacja • Niemcy • Austria • Norwegia • Dania • Wielka Brytania • Francja • Włochy • Łotwa • Białoruś • Ukraina • Kazachstan • Polska • Polska (2 liga) • Polska (3 liga) • Puchar Polski • Polska (kobiety) • Polska (juniorzy)
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata • Nordic Combined Triple • Letnie Grand Prix • Puchar Kontynentalny • Alpen Cup • Mistrzostwa Polski • Letnie mistrzostwa Polski
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa czterech kontynentów • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • ISU Grand Prix • (Skate America • Skate Canada International • Puchar Chin • Puchar Rosji • Trophée Eric Bompard Cachemire • NHK Trophy • Finał Grand Prix) • ISU Challenger Series • (U.S. International Classic • Nebelhorn Trophy • Memoriał Ondreja Nepeli • Finlandia Trophy • Mordovian Ornament • Ice Challenge • Tallinn Trophy • Warsaw Cup • Denkova-Staviski Cup • Golden Spin Zagrzeb) • Coupe de Nice • Ice Star • Crystal Skate of Romania • NRW Trophy • Merano Cup • Nordic Championships • Triglav Trophy • ISU Grand Prix juniorów • Mistrzostwa Czterech Narodów • Mistrzostwa Polski
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata w wieloboju • Mistrzostwa świata w wieloboju sprinterskim • Mistrzostwa świata na dystansach • Mistrzostwa Europy w wieloboju • Mistrzostwa Ameryki Północnej i Oceanii • Mistrzostwa Azji • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Akademickie mistrzostwa świata • Puchar Świata • Puchar Świata juniorów • Mistrzostwa Polski na dystansach • Mistrzostwa Polski w wieloboju • Mistrzostwa Polski w wieloboju sprinterskim
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Puchar Europy (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Puchar Ameryki Północnej (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Puchar Ameryki Południowej (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Puchar Dalekowschodni (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Puchar Australii i Nowej Zelandii (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Letnie mistrzostwa świata • Letnie mistrzostwa świata Juniorów • Letni Puchar Świata (kobiety • mężczyźni) • Mistrzostwa Polski
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata • Puchar Australii i Oceanii • Puchar Europy • Puchar Ameryki Północnej • Mistrzostwa Polski
Puchar Świata
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Mistrzostwa Europy juniorów • Mistrzostwa Ameryki i Pacyfiku • Mistrzostwa Azji • Puchar Świata • Puchar Narodów • Puchar Świata juniorów • Letni Puchar Świata • Mistrzostwa Polski
Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata • Puchar Świata juniorów
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata • Mistrzostwa Polski
ZIOM • Mistrzostwa świata • Mistrzostwa Europy • Mistrzostwa świata juniorów • Puchar Świata • Puchar Interkontynentalny • Puchar Europy • Puchar Ameryki Północnej
ZIOM • Puchar Świata • Puchar Europy • Puchar Ameryki Północnej • Puchar Ameryki Południowej • Puchar Australii i Oceanii • Mistrzostwa Polski

Cyril Burt

Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt (ur. 3 marca 1883 w Londynie, zm. 10 października 1971) – angielski psycholog, autor prac z dziedziny psychologii wychowawczej i statystyki

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. Pamiętany za prace nad dziedzicznym uwarunkowaniem inteligencji, uważane za przykład naukowego oszustwa.
Był najstarszym dzieckiem lekarza Cyrila Cecila Barrowa Burta i jego żony Marthy

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. Studiował nauki przyrodnicze i psychologię na Uniwersytecie w Oxfordzie

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, gdzie jego nauczycielem był William McDougall, studia psychologiczne uzupełniał u Oswalda Külpego w Würzburgu

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. Od 1908 roku wykładał psychologię na Uniwersytecie w Liverpoolu. Od 1913 roku pracował jako psycholog szkolny na rzecz London County Council. W 1931 roku otrzymał katedrę psychologii na University College London, jako następca Charlesa Spearmana

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.
W 1958 roku został honorowym przewodniczącym stowarzyszenia Mensa.
Jeszcze za życia Burta kwestionowano niektóre jego wyniki badań statystycznych, dowodzących dziedziczenia inteligencji. Szczegółowe sprawdzenie wyników Burta przeprowadzone przez Olivera Gillie (1976) i Leona Kamina (1974) potwierdziło, że znaczna część wyników badań statystycznych została przez Burta sfałszowana.

Ludwig Elsbett

Ludwig Elsbett (born November 8, 1913 in Salz, Lower Franconia

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, Germany – d. March 28, 2003) was the inventor of the Elsbett Engine.
Elsbett was one of nine children of the farmer Viktor Elsbett and his wife Maria. He grew up in agriculture, and was originally trained as a fitter for agricultural machinery. Later, he attended the technical schools in Bad Frankenhausen and Neustrelitz to study mechanical engineering and aircraft engines, and became a mechanical engineer.
In 1937, he was appointed department manager at the Junkers Aircraft Works in Dessau and developed combustion engines. In 1940 Women Sleeveless Busniess, he married his wife Lieselotte, and had five children with her. He was a living legend of technology; he played a decisive role in the further development of diesel engine technology.
After the war, Elsbett set up an independent factory in Salzgitter for the production of a small two-stroke diesel engine.
In 1973 Elsbett gained international recognition for the first ever serial-produced direct-injection diesel engine for cars.
In 1977 Elsbett produced an engine fuelled by vegetable oil called the Elsbett-motor.
In 1980 Elsbett made the first conversion of standard diesel cars with prechamber engines to vegetable oil.
In 1993 the Elsbett Mercedes won the first Eco Tour of Europe with the lowest consumption of fuel.
In 1997 Elsbett won the European Solar Prize.
In 2002 Elsbett converted the standard common-rail car engines and unit-injector truck engines to vegetable oil fuel.
There is now an Elsbett Museum in the city of Salz, Bavaria

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2005 Indonesian embassy bioterrorism hoax

The 2005 Indonesian embassy bioterrorism hoax occurred when Indonesian ambassador to Australia Imron Cotan received a suspect letter addressed to him at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra, Australia, on June 1, 2005. The suspect letter later turned out to be harmless.

The letter was opened by his personal assistant and contained white bacterial powder and a threatening message . Prime Minister John Howard made an apology to Indonesia after the incident, describing the incident as “a reckless act of indifference to human life”.
The identity of the powder and whether it posed any health risk was initially unclear; initial testing of the powder detected traces of a “biological agent”, but it was later found to be nontoxic. Approximately 50 staff members were quarantined for 12 hours

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. The embassy remained closed for several days following the incident.
The act is suspected to be related to the Schapelle Corby trial held at the time in Bali, Indonesia

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. Other Indonesian Diplomatic missions around Australia have reported receiving threatening emails and letters since the trial began. A bullet was sent in an envelope to the Indonesia consulate in Perth.
On June 3, 2005 a section of Parliament House was sealed off when the discovery of a suspicious package delivered to Foreign Minister Alexander Downer was discovered in the car park. The suspect package was taken away for analysis and no evacuations occurred. The analysis has since shown the contents to be harmless but forensic tests are continuing to establish if there are any links between this package and the earlier one sent to the Indonesian embassy.
Various news reports, including those from SBS have reported that the enclosed letter was written in Indonesian, with a high degree of competence

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. However, this has been contradicted in other reports, see links below.
Coordinates: 35°18′14″S 149°07′00″E / 35.303932°S 149

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Pontygwaith

Pontygwaith (Welsh

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,”Bridge to work” or “Bridge of the Ironworks”) is a village situated in the Merthyr Valley, (now referred to as the Taff Valley), South Wales.
A Sussex Ironmaster named Anthony Morley set up a small ironworks here in 1583.
On 21 February 1804 Richard Trevithick ran the first ever steam locomotive along tracks, now known as the Merthyr Tramroad, carrying both iron ore and passengers, from Penydarren near Merthyr Tydfil, via Pontygwaith, south to Abercynon.
There is little of the original village remaining today, which was inhabited and existed until approx 1977 as a terrace of ten houses and a farm. The site of the original village is accessible from the Taff Trail National cycle route 8

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. This leads down a heavily tree lined slope to the area that was the original village site.
The bridge over the River Taff at Pontygwait is a Grade II listed structure. and was featured in the Beauty and the Beast episode of the BBC’s Merlin, where a girl has a picnic with a troll beneath the bridge.
Pontygwaith today lacks many dwellings, but one notable exception is Pontygwaith Farm, located on the hill near the bridge, which offers tea room facilities. The gardens have occasionally been opened, for charity days, by the owners.
The National Cycle Route 477 Taith Trevithick Trail heads up the east side of the valley from Pontygwaith to Trevithick’s Tunnel – just south of Merthyr Tydfil

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, old stone sleepers can still be seen all around these trails on the east side of the valley where the famous tramroad ran. Cycle route 8 (the Taff Trail) also passes through the village.
Pontygwaith was the birthplace of composer Mansel Thomas OBE (1909 – 1986).
Coordinates: 51°38′24″N 3°25′58″W / 51.64000°N 3

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L’Enfer et moi

Amandine Bourgeois présentant elle-même et sa chanson L’Enfer et Moi
Chansons représentant la France au Concours Eurovision de la chanson
Echo (You and I) (2012) Moustache (2014)
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L’Enfer et moi est une chanson interprétée par la chanteuse Amandine Bourgeois pour représenter la France au Concours Eurovision de la chanson de 2013 qui se déroulait à Malmö en Suède.

Ce titre a été proposé par le manager d’Amandine et sélectionné parmi dix-huit titres pour représenter la France au Concours Eurovision de la chanson 2013 qui se déroule à Malmö (Suède).
Amandine Bourgeois choisit cette chanson (paroles de Boris Bergman et musique de David Salkin) soccer jerseys vente, car

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, selon ses déclarations, c’est « une chanson qui me colle à la peau

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. »
La chanson est dévoilée le 13 mars 2013, d’abord par un extrait diffusé sur la station de radio RTL

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, puis intégralement sur le logiciel de streaming musical Spotify. La première interprétation publique d’Amandine Bougeois a lieu le 14 mars 2013 dans l’émission télévisée C à vous sur France 5.
Il s’agit de la première chanson interprétée lors de la soirée du concours, avant Andrius Pojavis qui représentait la Lituanie avec Something jimmy choo schuhe. À l’issue du concours, L’Enfer et Moi a obtenu 23 points et se termine 23e sur 26.

System sequence diagram

In software engineering, a system sequence diagram (SSD) is a sequence diagram that shows, for a particular scenario of a use case, the events that external actors generate, their order, and possible inter-system events.
System sequence diagrams are visual summaries of the individual use cases.
All systems are treated as a black box

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; the diagram places emphasis on events that cross the system boundary from actors to systems. A system sequence diagram should be done for the main success scenario of the use case, and frequent or complex alternative scenarios.
A system sequence diagram should specify and show the following:
Professionals, in developing a project, often use system sequence diagrams to illustrate how certain tasks are done between users and the system. These tasks may include repetitive, simple, or complex tasks. The purpose is to illustrate the use case in a visual format. In order to construct a system sequence diagram

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, you need to be familiar with the unified modeling language (UML). These models show the logic behind the actors (people who affect the system) and the system in performing the task. Reading a sequence diagram begins at the top with the actor(s) or the system(s) (which is located at the top of the page). Under each actor or system there are long dotted line called lifelines, which are attached to them. Actions are performed with lines that extend between these lifelines. When an action line is connected to a lifeline it shows the interaction between the actor or system. Messages will often appear at the top or bottom of a system sequence diagram to illustrate the action in detail. For example

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, the actor could request to login

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, this would be represented by login (username

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, password). After each action is performed, the response or next action is located under the previous one. As you read down the lines you will see in detail how certain actions are performed in the system.

Nancy Hanks Lincoln heritage

There is long standing controversy regarding Nancy Hanks Lincoln’s heritage. Nancy was the wife of Thomas Lincoln and mother of the 16th president Abraham Lincoln. Her familial background according to historian Albert J. Beveridge is as “Dim as the dream of a shifting mirage… her face and figure waver through the mists of time and rumor.”
There are two dominant theories about Nancy’s maternal heritage:
A recent mitochondrial DNA test of descendants of daughters of Joseph Hanks, daughters of Lucy Hanks Sparrow, and two Shipley sisters show a match between Hanks and Sparrow and no match to the Shipleys, making it certain Nancy Hanks is the illegitimate daughter of Lucy Hanks, and that Lucy is the daughter of Ann “Nanny” Lee Hanks.
This article explores the information about Nancy’s heritage published in books and national, state or local historic site literature.

Nancy’s mother, Lucy, is related to the Hanks, either through birth or marriage. Nancy’s grandparents are believed to be Ann (“Nannie”) and Joseph Hanks of North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, Virginia. They are said to have raised her from infancy until about nine years of age when her grandfather died.
The question is whether Nancy is related to the Hanks on her paternal or maternal side.
… He [Thomas Lincoln] married Nancy Hanks – mother of the present subject [Abraham Lincoln] – in the year 1806. She was also born in Virginia; and relatives of hers of the name of Hanks, and other names, now reside in Coles, in Macon, and in Adams Counties, Illinois, and also in Iowa.
Daguerreotype of Abraham Lincoln at age 54, 1863
Depiction of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, courtesy of Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial
John Hanks, cousin of Nancy Hanks Lincoln
Dennis Hanks, cousin of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in his younger days.
Nancy Hanks first lived in her grandparents’, Joseph and Ann Hanks’, cabin in what was then Hampshire County, VA (now Mineral County, West Virginia). The Hanks family, with Lucy and Nancy, then moved in March, 1784 to Kentucky. In 1787 they settled about 2 miles north of the mouth of Pottinger’s Creek and Rolling Fork, in a settlement called Rolling Fork or Pottinger’s Creek settlement, in Nelson County, Kentucky.
Joseph Hanks died in 1793. It is commonly believed by historians that Nancy’s grandmother, also named Nancy but generally called Ann, decided to return to the homeland of her youth and much of her adulthood in old Farnham parish in Virginia. At that time, Nancy went to live for an unspecified period of time with her mother who was now Lucy Hanks Sparrow, having married Henry Sparrow in Harrodsburg, Kentucky two or three years earlier. Then, in 1796, after her aunt Elizabeth married Thomas Sparrow, Nancy went to live with the newly married couple and called them “mother” and “father”. The Sparrows are said to have been neighbors of John Berry.
Regarding the stigma of an unwed mother, author Ralph Gary wrote: “Lucy’s baby, if born out of wedlock, was not only a disgrace, but also subjected Lucy to an indictable offense at the time.”
After “fornication” charges were brought against Lucy Hanks in November, 1789 in Mercer County, Kentucky Henry Sparrow announced that he would marry Lucy and in 1790 signed a marriage bond. On April 26, 1790 the marriage license was issued and the following year, on April 3, 1791, the couple was married by a Baptist preacher, Reverend John Bailey. In May of 1790, the court met and dropped the charges against Lucy Hanks.
Following Lucy’s marriage to Henry Sparrow, the couple had eight or nine children and Lucy had a reputation as a “fine Christian woman”. Two sons were loyal to the Union during the Civil War and were preachers. Per authors Harold and Ernestine Briggs, “After her marriage there were no more complaints against her character.”
Elizabeth Hanks, daughter of Joseph Hanks, married Thomas Sparrow in Mercer County, Kentucky in 1796. Thomas was Henry Sparrow’s brother. That year Nancy went to live with the newly married couple – whom she called “mother and father”. Nancy then also began to be called Nancy Sparrow.[nb 4] Lucy’s sister Nancy Hanks gave birth to an illegitimate son in 1799 named Dennis Friend Hanks who was also raised by Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrows. Dennis was Nancy Hanks Lincoln’s cousin.
The Thomas Lincoln family and Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow often lived near one another. Nancy and Thomas Lincoln’s home near Hodgenville at Nolin Creek was about 2 miles from the Sparrow’s cabin. Elizabeth (“Betsy”) ministered to baby and mother at Abraham Lincoln’s birth in 1809. Then, in 1817 one year after Thomas and Nancy moved to Indiana, Nancy’s Aunt Elizabeth Sparrow, Uncle Thomas Sparrow and Cousin Dennis Hanks moved onto Lincoln’s property at Little Pigeon Creek (at the Little Pigeon Creek Community). The Sparrows died in September 1818 of milk sickness, weeks later in early October Nancy also died of the poisoned milk. Nancy Hanks Lincoln was buried next to Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow “on a knoll overlooking” the cabin.
Abraham Lincoln, however, did not apparently know while growing up that the people introduced to him as Aunt Lucy and Uncle Henry were truly his grandmother and step-grandfather and Elizabeth Hanks Sparrow was not “Granny”, but his aunt.
An alternate theory about Nancy Hanks’ parentage is that she is not an illegitimate child born to Lucy, but the daughter of Lucy Shipley and James Hanks, who was believed to have died before Lucy moved to Kentucky. In this case, Joseph and Ann Hanks are Lucy’s in-laws. Author Louis Warren claimed that Lucy was the sister of Rachel Shipley who married Richard Berry and Naomi Shipley who married Robert Mitchell. The Shipley girl’s father was believed to be Robert Shipley. The primary sources for this information are decades old publications.[nb 5]
It is clear from multiple sources that Nancy Hanks lived at the Berry’s household for some period of time, the exact time period(s), however, is unclear. See the following section regarding the “Berry family” for information regarding Rachel Shipley and Richard Berry, Sr’s family.
There is also a theory that Captain Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Lincoln’s father, was married first to Mary Shipley.[nb 6] Lea and Hutchinson said in 1909 that Mary Shipley was from Lunenburg County, Virginia. She was believed to be the daughter of Robert and Sarah Shipley. Having died by 1779, Mary is believed, under this theory, to be the mother of Captain Abraham Lincoln’s oldest children. Bathsheba Lincoln appears on real estate documents by 1780 and is believed to be the mother of Thomas Lincoln.
Author and historian William Barton said in 1927 that the following account was undisputed for 25 years: Mary Shipley was sister to women who married: Joseph Hanks, maternal grandfather of Nancy Hanks, Mr. Berry, Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Thompson, all from Lunenburg County, Virginia. All five Shipley sisters are said to have moved to Washington County, Kentucky. This would make the following connection for Abraham: “Thomas Lincoln, son of Abraham and Mary Shipley Lincoln, married Nancy daughter of Joseph and Mary Shipley Hanks; and their second child and first son was Abraham Lincoln.” However, Barton was unable to find any documentation that showed that the Hanks and Shipleys lived near one another during the time periods in question. There were Hawks family members, though, who lived near Shipleys, Mitchells and Thompsons; previous writers assumed the Hawks family were later called the Hanks family. He did find, though, the birthplace of Nancy Hanks in Hampshire County

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, Virginia and the Joseph Hanks family on the 1782 census for that area.
There are some areas where there seems to be a clear intersection of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hank’s lives with the Berrys:
What is not clear, and what is disputed by contemporary historians, is whether or not Nancy Hanks is of Shipley ancestry and whether she lived with the Berrys during her childhood

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. Two key sources of information about Nancy Hanks living with the Berrys as a child are 1) Sarah Mitchell, who lived with the Richard Berry, Sr. and Rachel Shipley Berry after 1785, and 2) Robert Mitchell Berry, son of Richard Berry, Jr., who says that Nancy Hanks lived with Richard Berry, Jr.
The Berry family in Nancy Hank’s history lived in Beechland, north of Springfield. The neighborhood was a piece of land created by a horseshoe bend in the Beech Fork River. Richard Berry, Sr. had settled in the area and in 1781 or 1782 sold a 100-acre piece of his property along a creek known now as Lincoln Run to Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln reputedly built a cabin for the Lincoln family before his death in May

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, 1786.[nb 7]
Richard Berry, Sr.’s brother, Francis, was also an early settler in the Beechland neighborhood.
The Mercer County community brought charges against Lucy Hanks for “fornication” in November, 1789. John Berry of Doctor’s Fork of the Chaplin River (near Perrysville), son of Rachel Shipley and Richard Berry, was on the Grand Jury. A few days before a 1790 court date, Henry Sparrow initiated a marriage bond for Lucy Hanks and himself. John Berry and Robert Mitchell (first cousin to John Berry, son of Rachel and Richard Berry) witnessed Lucy’s signature to the bond.
According to Louis Warren, whose research has been lauded but his findings have been disputed by modern historians, particularly “his interpretation of facts”: Nancy Hanks came to live with the Rachel Shipley and Richard Berry family after her mother married (after 1790). During her time with the Berrys she befriended neighbor Thomas Lincoln. She later [unspecified time] came to live with the Richard Berry, Jr. family.
Warren further states that: In 1795 sixteen-year-old Sarah Mitchell was sent to live with her maternal aunt Rachel Shipley Berry. She was freed from Native Americans who she lived with since her mother Naomi Shipley Mitchell was killed at an ambush at a place called Defeated. According to Troy Cowan, her father Robert Mitchell drowned trying to rescue his daughter in 1790. Nancy Hanks was also living with the Berrys by 1795 and the girls believed they were first cousins and became quite close, and are also believed to have named daughters after each other. In 1800 Sarah married and moved away.
According to the Nancy Hanks Lincoln biography written by the Briggs, Nancy did not live with the Berrys while Rachel and Richard’s sons Edward and Francis were still at home, but after Richard and John were married.
According to Troy Cowan, some of whose findings are suspect, states that Nancy went to work for the Berrys in 1800, two years after the death of Richard Berry, Sr. and following the marriage of Richard and Rachel Berry’s daughter Sarah. Aside from being a seamstress, Nancy also wove her own fabric. When Nancy was 20 years of age (about 1804), Rachel Berry died and Nancy then worked for Francis and Elizabeth Berry. In addition to sewing, she also took care of the couple’s three children. She had a bit of a reputation for being familiar with boys. During this period of time Thomas was picking up work from the Sparrow, Berry and Bush families.
Francis Berry was married two years after his father’s death, likely in 1800. Author Dan Davenport claims that Nancy Hanks lived at the Francis Berry house when she was courted by Thomas Lincoln.
The 1913 obituary for 95-year-old Robert Mitchell Berry that Richard Berry, Jr. raised Nancy Hanks and signed her marriage bond. Robert Mitchell Berry was Richard Berry, Jr.’s son. Born in 1769, Richard Berry, Jr. was 15 years older than Nancy.
On June 12, 1806, Hanks married Thomas Lincoln at the home of Richard Berry in Beechland by Reverend Jesse Head. Nancy was brought to the home to work as a seamstress by her friend Polly Ewing Berry, the wife of Richard Berry Jr. since October 10, 1794. Polly was a friend of Nancy’s from Mercer County, Kentucky and Richard Berry, Jr. was a good friend of Thomas Lincoln.
Nancy’s marriage bond was signed by Richard Berry, Jr. who identified himself as her guardian. Per Warren, “The title had no legal significance, Berry having never been so appointed, and Nancy Hanks was then of age. But of him to call himself ‘guardian’ was a courtesy customary under such circumstances” [no father able to sign the marriage bond].
According to author Ralph Gary, one theory is that upon moving to Washington County, Kentucky Lucy and Nancy lived at Beech Fork with relatives Rachel Shipley Berry and Richard Berry. He further stated that Rachel was considered by some to be one of Lucy’s sisters. The National Park Service states in their summary of Nancy Hanks life that Richard Berry is an uncle of Nancy’s. This fits with the theory that Rachael Shipley is a relative of Lucy Shipley who married a Hanks.
This information, though, is not present in recent, solid historical books about Nancy Hanks. Perhaps a sign that the Berrys did not consider Nancy a daughter, in Richard Berry’s will he mentions a daughter Sarah [Mitchell], but not Nancy.
Published information about Nancy’s mother being Lucy Shipley and her father being James Hanks is contrary to the theory that Nancy was illegitimate and that Lucy was born into the Hanks family, as was published by William E. Barton in the “Life of Abraham Lincoln” and Michael Burkhimer in “100 Essential Lincoln Books”. John M. Hay and John George Nicolay, authors of “Abraham Lincoln” asserted that Berry was a connection of Lincoln’s. In his book, Doug Wead stated that Rachel was working for Richard Berry as a seamstress.
Abraham’s law partner William Herndon reported that Abraham told him that Nancy’s father was “a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter.”
Lincoln is quoted as saying: “I don’t know who my grandfather was; I am much more concerned to know what his grandson will be.”
Mitochondrial DNA testing.
In October 2015, a mitochondrial DNA test was published showing that matrilineal descendants of Lucy Hanks Sparrow were a match to matrilineal descendants of Joseph Hanks and Ann Lee of Nelson County Kentucky (through Nancy Hanks Hall and Mary Hanks Friend.) This study also show a match to descendants of Sophia Hanks LeGrand and Margaret Hanks LeGrand, daughters of Sally Hanks, another child born to Lucy Hanks before her marriage to Henry Sparrow. This definitively shows that Lucy Hanks was born a Hanks

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, not a Shipley. Matrilineal descendants of Naomi Shipley Mitchell and Rachel Shipley Berry were also included, and they do not match.
:(1) It’s unclear if Nancy Hanks lived the entire three years (1793-1796) with her mother prior to moving in with her aunt, Elizabeth Hanks and newly married uncle, Thomas Sparrow.
There was some confusion about which Nancy Hanks was the mother of Abraham Lincoln. Mother Nancy was sometimes confused with her great-aunt, Nancy Hanks.
One rumor is that Nancy Hanks was raised in Rutherford County, North Carolina. Rather than being based upon published information or direct family member testimony, this theory was based upon locals belief of rumors that Hanks was raised in North Carolina. She is also said to have come to Kentucky in 1786 from the Catawba River area of North Carolina.
Another rumor was that Nancy Hanks was born into the Tanner family and was raised by Abraham Enlow of Rutherford County, North Carolina. Another rumor, perhaps the start of all Abraham Enlow rumors, was that Abraham Enloe or Enlow was Abraham’s birth father. The story is that Thomas and Nancy’s neighbor at the time of Abraham’s birth, Abraham Enlow, was the birth father. What makes this difficult is that the Lincolns did not move near the Enlows until Nancy had already conceived Abraham, Enlow would have been 14 at that time and Enlow never admitted to being the father of Abraham Lincoln. He did tell a story, though, that the child was named after him [perhaps not knowing that Thomas’ father was named Abraham] because he was sent to get midwives to assist Nancy in the birth of the baby.[nb 8] Stories then emerged of other Abraham Enlows or Engloes who may have been the birth father.

Bridge and torch problem

Richard Hovasse’s bridge and torch problem (also known as The Midnight Train and Dangerous crossing) is a logic puzzle that deals with four people, a bridge and a torch. It is one of the category of river crossing puzzles, where a number of objects must move across a river, with some constraints.

Four people come to a river in the night. There is a narrow bridge, but it can only hold two people at a time. They have one torch and, because it’s night, the torch has to be used when crossing the bridge. Person A can cross the bridge in one minute, B in two minutes, C in five minutes, and D in eight minutes. When two people cross the bridge together, they must move at the slower person’s pace. The question is, can they all get across the bridge in 15 minutes or less?
An obvious first idea is that the cost of returning the torch to the people waiting to cross is an unavoidable expense which should be minimized. This strategy makes A the torch bearer, shuttling each person across the bridge:
This strategy does not permit a crossing in 15 minutes. To find the correct solution, one must realize that forcing the two slowest people to cross individually wastes time which can be saved if they both cross together:
A second equivalent solution swaps the return trips. Basically, the two fastest people cross together on the 1st and 5th trips, the two slowest people cross together on the 3rd trip, and EITHER of the fastest people returns on the 2nd trip

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, and the other fastest person returns on the 4th trip.
Assume that a solution minimizes the total number of crosses. This gives a total of five crosses – three pair crosses and two solo-crosses. Also, assume we always choose the fastest for the solo-cross. First, we show that if the two slowest persons (C and D) cross separately, they accumulate a total crossing time of 15. This is done by taking persons A, C, & D: C+A+B+A = 8+1+5+1=15. (Here we use A because we know that using A to cross both C and D separately is the most efficient.) But, the time has elapsed and person A and B are still on the starting side of the bridge and must cross. So it is not possible for the two slowest (C & D) to cross separately. Second, we show that in order for C and D to cross together that they need to cross on the second pair-cross: i.e. not C or D, so A and B, must cross together first. Remember our assumption at the beginning states that we should minimize crosses and so we have five crosses – 3 pair-crossings and 2 single crossings. Assume that C and D cross first. But then C or D must cross back to bring the torch to the other side, and so whoever solo-crossed must cross again. Hence, they will cross separately. Also, it is impossible for them to cross together last, since this implies that one of them must have crossed previously, otherwise there would be three persons total on the start side. So

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, since there are only three choices for the pair-crossings and C and D cannot cross first or last, they must cross together on the second, or middle, pair-crossing. Putting all this together, A and B must cross first, since we know C and D cannot and we are minimizing crossings. Then

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, A must cross next, since we assume we should choose the fastest to make the solo-cross. Then we are at the second, or middle, pair-crossing so C and D must go. Then we choose to send the fastest back, which is B. A and B are now on the start side and must cross for the last pair-crossing. This gives us, B+A+D+B+B = 2+1+8+2+2 = 15.
Several variations exist, with cosmetic variations such as differently named people, or variation in the crossing times or time limit. The torch itself may expire in a short time and so serve as the time limit. In a variation called The Midnight Train, for example, person D needs 10 minutes instead of 8 to cross the bridge, and persons A, B, C and D, now called the four Gabrianni brothers

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, have 17 minutes to catch the midnight train.
The puzzle is known to have appeared as early as 1981, in the book Super Strategies For Puzzles and Games. In this version of the puzzle, A, B, C and D take 5, 10, 20, and 25 minutes, respectively, to cross, and the time limit is 60 minutes. In all these variations, the structure and solution of the puzzle remain the same.
In the case where there are an arbitrary number of people with arbitrary crossing times, and the capacity of the bridge remains equal to two people, the problem has been completely analyzed by graph-theoretic methods.
Martin Erwig from Oregon State University has used a variation of the problem to argue for the usability of the Haskell programming language over Prolog for solving search problems.

Panchari melam

Panchari Melam is a percussion ensemble, performed during temple festivals in Kerala, India. Panchari Melam (or, simply, panchari), is one of the major forms of chenda melam (ethnic drum ensemble), and is the best-known and most popular kshetram vadyam (temple percussion) genre. Panchari melam, comprising instruments like chenda, ilathalam, kombu and kuzhal, is performed during virtually every temple festival in central Kerala, where it is arguably presented in the most classical manner. Panchari, however, is also traditionally performed, with a touch of subtle regional difference, in north (Malabar) and south-central Kerala (Kochi). Of late, its charm has led to its performance even in deep-south Kerala temples.
Panchari is a six-beat thaalam (taal) with equivalents like Roopakam in south Indian Carnatic music and Daadra in the northern Hindustani classical.
Another chenda melam which comes close to panchari in prominence and grammatical soundness, is Pandi Melam, performed outside temple precincts in general. Other chenda melams, though less popular, are chempata, adanta, anchatanta, dhruvam, chempha, dhruvam, navam, kalpam and ekadasam. Though there are expressional differences between the panchari and the above-mentioned melams (other than pandi), the description of the former is proto-typical for the rest of them.
Panchari melam is performed either in its elaborate form (during annual temple festivals) or in its sketchy detail (to accompany the daily or weekly temple rituals). Either ways, they are performed only within the walls of the temple. The Panchari Melam represents “Satthva Guna”, and elevates listeners to higher pedestals.
The ensemble starts at the main entrance to the inner part of the temple, slowly circling the shrine clockwise while playing. A panchari melam has five stages, each of them based on beats totalling 96, 48, 24, 12 and 6 respectively. The first phase of the Panchari Melam, also called the “Pathikaalam” stands out for its unique blend of percussion and noted from the Kuzhal. The crescendo rises higher with each phase, eventually culminating in the fifth phase with a 6-beat cycle. For the culmination of the fifth phase, a unique 3-beat cycle called “Muri-Panchari” is also employed to take the Melam to an apt conclusion. The Melam thus starts with a broad base, and progresses completing the pyramid structure, culminating at the apex.
The semi-circular procession, with caparisoned elephants totalling between three to fifteen generally), is led by the deity of the temple kept on tusker in the centre. (In a pure ritualistic case, the idol is carried by the Namboodiri priest himself). The deity faces the musical ensemble and devotees/melam buffs, the latter surrounding the musicians and following the progress of the melam.

Panchari melam, in its grand classical form, is staged during temple festivals in and around Thrissur district. The best Panchari Melam’s are held at Peruvanam Pooram, Arattupuzha Pooram, Kuttanellur Pooram, Edakunni Uthram Vilakku, Thripunithura Sree Poornathrayeesa temple, and at Koodalmanikyam temple. The longest and the most sublime Panchari Melam’s are the ones held at Peruvanam Pooram, Edakunni Uthram Vilakku & Kuttanellur Pooram, with the performance lasting for about four hours. The last one endures for a record duration of four hours. A list of Panchari in Thrissur Dist- in and around Cherpu. 1. Chendamangalam (Paliyam) temple 2. Thiruvambady Temple 2. Thaikkattussery 3. Chakkam kulangara 4. Cherpu Bhagavati 5

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. Chatthakkudam 6. Kadalassery 7. Araattupuzha 9. Thriprayar 10. Irinjalakkuda 11. Pothani 12. Chelurkavu 13. Avitathur 14. Ayankavu 15. Kodunthirapully Mahanavami navarathri
Among the leading masters of Panchari melam today are Kizhakkoottu Aniyan Marar, Madathil Narayanankutty Marar, Peruvanam Kuttan Marar, Cheranallore Shankarankutty Marar, Peruvanam Satheesan Marar, Karimpuzha Gopi Poduval, Mattannur Sankarankutty Marar, Kelath Aravindan, Cherussery Kuttan Marar, Pazhuvil Ragu Marar, Kelath Prabhakaran Marar, Thiruvalla Radhakrishnan, Kanhangad Muraleedhara Marar, Payyavoor Narayana Marar, Chowalloor Mohanan, Guruvayoor Haridas, RLV Mahesh, Chittannur Madhusoodhanan Marar, Peruvanam Prakashan Marar

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,peruvanam satheeshan marar Chendamangalam Unnikrishna Marar and Kalamandalam Sivadasan, Cherussery Sreekumar Marar.
Late panchari melam masters of the recent past include Late Shri Pandarathil Kuttappa Marar, Peruvanam Narayana Marar,Peruvanam Appu Marar,Kumarapurathu Appu Marar, Chakkamkulam Appu Marar, Thrippekulam Achutha Marar, Late Madathil GopalaMarar,Karimpuzha Rama Poduval, Mulangunnathukavu Appukutta Kurup, Pandarathil Murali, Kachamkurichi Kannan, Kuruppath Eachara Marar

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, Karekkattu Eachara Marar, Pattirathu Sankara Marar and Makkoth Nanu Marar The Great Thrimoorthies In All Late :Shri Pandarathil Kuttappa Marar,Late:Makoth Sankaran kutty Marar, Anthikad Raman Kutty Marar. Three of them learned the Thayambaka from Late Shri Thiyadi Naimbair.