Nur ibn al-Wazir Mujahid

Nur ibn al-Wazir Mujahid ou Nour ibn al-Oizir Moudjahid, est un sultan somalien de Harar (Adal, actuelle Éthiopie). Il succède à Ahmed Gragne, encouragé par sa veuve Bati Del Wambara, après sa mort en 1543.
Il fortifie Harar après la défaite de Ouaïna-Dega. En 1545, les Oromos dévastent son royaume, apportant la famine.
En 1550, les Éthiopiens ripostent aux premières agressions de Nour-ibn-al-Ouazir. Harrar est saccagée. Cinq ans plus tard, Nur ibn al-Wazir envahit le Fatajar. Le négus Claudius est battu et décapité au cours d’une bataille le jour du Vendredi saint. Sa tête est portée à Harrar et présentée à la veuve de Gragne, puis exposée pendant trois ans au sommet d’un pilier.
À partir de 1563, le négus Sarsa-Dengel attaque l’Adal, qui allait s’allier avec le gouverneur du Tigré Yésahq, le plus dangereux des grands. Il anéantit définitivement sur le Ouébi l’armée reconstituée de Hara. Le sultanat d’Adal va s’établir au cœur du désert Danakil, près des lacs du Aoussa, loin des attaques des Oromos, où il survit un siècle. La cité de Harar devient indépendante.

US Open 1986/Herreneinzel

Herreneinzel der US Open 1986
Titelverteidiger war Ivan Lendl.

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Autonomie Liberté Participation Écologie

Autonomie Liberté Participation Écologie (ALPE, in italiano: Autonomia Libertà Partecipazione Ecologia) è un partito politico regionalista di centro-sinistra in Valle d’Aosta. È stato fondato nel 2010 dalla confluenza di Renouveau Valdôtain, Vallée d’Aoste Vive e Verdi alternativi.

L’alleanza tra Renouveau Valdôtain e Vallée d’Aoste Vive nasce in occasione delle elezioni politiche del 2006. In quell’occasione e nelle elezioni politiche del 2008 i due partiti fanno parte di Autonomie Liberté Démocratie (ALD), che comprende i partiti di centro-sinistra nella regione (Democratici di Sinistra, Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita, ecc.).
L’alleanza si ripresenta alle elezioni europee del 2009, ma in questo caso consiste solamente di Renouveau Valdôtain e Vallée d’Aoste Vive. A livello nazionale, la lista si collega all’Italia dei Valori. In tale frangente, ALD ottiene lo 0,08% dei voti su base nazionale, corrispondente al 18,5% dei voti nella regione, senza conseguire alcuna rappresentanza.
Nel gennaio 2010, Renouveau Valdôtain, Vallée d’Aoste Vive e Verdi alternativi confluiscono definitivamente nel nuovo soggetto politico, che assume la denominazione di Autonomie Liberté Participation Écologie (ALPE).
Alle elezioni politiche del 2013, l’ALPE sostiene la coalizione di centrosinistra Italia. Bene Comune, che in Valle d’Aosta prende il nome di Alleanza Autonomista–Democratica-Progressista.
Alle elezioni europee del 2014, ALPE candida Luca Barbieri, sostenuto da Union Valdôtaine Progressiste, sulla lista del Partito Democratico, circonscrizione nord-occidentale.

Musée juif de Francfort-sur-le-Main

Le Musée juif de Francfort-sur-le-Main est situé dans la Hesse, en Allemagne. Il décrit l’histoire et la culture de la communauté juive de la ville du XIIe au XXe siècle.
Le musée a été inauguré le 9 novembre 1988, date commémorant le 50ième anniversaire de la Nuit de Cristal.
L’exposition permanente présente notamment des œuvres de Ludwig Meidner, Eduard Bendemann et Moritz-Daniel Oppenheim ainsi que des objets concernant la vie religieuse et quotidienne juive. Le sort des Juifs de Francfort sous le régime nazi y est clairement documenté.
Une autre branche du musée nommée le Musée Judengasse a été construite dans une autre partie de la ville en 1992.
Ce musée tire son nom du Judengasse, le Ghetto de Francfort créé en 1462. Situé à Börneplatz, il fut bâti sur les fondations de plusieurs maisons juives du quartier. Le musée documente l’histoire du ghetto jusqu’à son abolition en 1796. Les restes des murs de la synagogue de Börneplatz sont présentés dans le musée ainsi qu’un ancien mikvé (bain rituel).
Site officiel du musée

Most Kintai

Most Kintai (jap. 錦帯橋, Kintai-kyō?) – historyczny most drewniany w mieście Iwakuni, w prefekturze Yamaguchi w Japonii.
Most został zbudowany w 1673 roku, łącząc oba brzegi rzeki Nishiki pięcioma drewnianymi łukami. Znajduje się u podnóża góry Yokoyama, na której szczycie znajduje się zamek Iwakuni.
Park Kikkō, na którego terenie znajdują się most Kintai i zamek, jest jednym z najpopularniejszych rejonów turystycznych w Japonii, szczególnie w okresie kwitnienia wiśni oraz jesiennej zmiany kolorów klonów japońskich. Park został uznany za skarb narodowy w 1922 roku.

Po zakończeniu w 1601 roku budowy zamku przez pierwszego władcę Iwakuni, Hiroie Kikkawę, zbudowano serię drewnianych mostów. Wszystkie jednak uległy zniszczeniu przez powodzie przed powstaniem mostu Kintai.
Most Kintai został wybudowany w 1673 roku przez Hiroyoshiego Kikkawę, trzeciego władcę tych ziem. Konstrukcję oparto na kamiennych filarach, jednak nie uchroniło to mostu przed zniszczeniem w powodzi kolejnego roku. Po tym wydarzeniu filary zostały wzmocnione. Ustanowiono także specjalny podatek na utrzymanie mostu. “Utrzymanie” oznaczało okresową odbudowę mostu – trzy środkowe przęsła co 20 lat, przęsła skrajne co 40 lat. Dzięki temu most trwał nienaruszony aż do 1950 roku, kiedy uległ tajfunowi “Kijiya”. W tamtym okresie konstrukcja mostu była osłabiona, ponieważ w czasie II wojny światowej zaniechano przebudowy przęseł, a dodatkowo rok wcześniej jednostka amerykańskich marines stacjonująca w Iwakuni wydobyła duże ilości żwiru z brzegów rzeki, co spowodowało przyśpieszenie nurtu na tym odcinku rzeki. Most został odbudowany przy użyciu nieco odmiennej techniki w roku 1953. Użyto po raz pierwszy gwoździ, wykonanych ze stopu używanego także przy wykuwaniu tradycyjnych mieczy japońskich. Zrekonstruowany obiekt dotrwał do dziś, przechodząc remonty w latach 2001 i 2004.
Most zbudowany został z pięciu drewnianych łuków posadowionych na czterech kamiennych filarach i dwóch drewnianych na brzegach rzeki. Środkowe przęsła mają rozpiętość 35,1 m, a skrajne po 34,8 m. Cały most ma 175 m długości i 5 m szerokości.
Przez blisko trzysta lat konstruktorzy i restauratorzy mostu obywali się bez użycia gwoździ. Było to możliwe dzięki dokładnemu spasowaniu elementów drewnianych i łączeniu ich przy pomocy metalowych opasek. Główne elementy mostu zostały następnie pokryte miedzianą blachą.
Kształt mostu zapewniał mu niezwykłą wytrzymałość od strony wierzchniej, lecz dużą podatność na uszkodzenia od spodu. Fala powodziowa mogłaby zmyć konstrukcję i ponieść ją z nurtem. W związku z tym kładka mostu jest konstrukcją “pływającą”, opartą o połączenia wpustowe. Dzięki temu rozwiązaniu, przybrane wody mogą znieść jedynie kładkę, lecz oszczędzić konstrukcję nośną mostu.

Zipf’s law

Zipf’s law /ˈzɪf/, an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics, refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law probability distributions. The law is named after the American linguist George Kingsley Zipf (1902–1950), who popularized it and sought to explain it (Zipf 1935, 1949), though he did not claim to have originated it. The French stenographer Jean-Baptiste Estoup (1868–1950) appears to have noticed the regularity before Zipf. It was also noted in 1913 by German physicist Felix Auerbach (1856–1933).

Zipf’s law states that given some corpus of natural language utterances, the frequency of any word is inversely proportional to its rank in the frequency table. Thus the most frequent word will occur approximately twice as often as the second most frequent word, three times as often as the third most frequent word, etc.: the rank-frequency distribution is an inverse relation. For example, in the Brown Corpus of American English text, the word “the” is the most frequently occurring word, and by itself accounts for nearly 7% of all word occurrences (69,971 out of slightly over 1 million). True to Zipf’s Law, the second-place word “of” accounts for slightly over 3.5% of words (36,411 occurrences), followed by “and” (28,852). Only 135 vocabulary items are needed to account for half the Brown Corpus.
The same relationship occurs in many other rankings unrelated to language, such as the population ranks of cities in various countries, corporation sizes, income rankings, ranks of number of people watching the same TV channel, and so on. The appearance of the distribution in rankings of cities by population was first noticed by Felix Auerbach in 1913. Empirically, a data set can be tested to see whether Zipf’s law applies by checking the goodness of fit of an empirical distribution to the hypothesized power law distribution with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and then comparing the (log) likelihood ratio of the power law distribution to alternative distributions like an exponential distribution or lognormal distribution. When Zipf’s law is checked for cities, a better fit has been found with b = 1.07; i.e. the largest settlement is the size of the largest settlement. While Zipf’s law holds for the upper tail of the distribution, the entire distribution of cities is log-normal and follows Gibrat’s law. Both laws are consistent because a log-normal tail can typically not be distinguished from a Pareto (Zipf) tail.
Zipf’s law is most easily observed by plotting the data on a log-log graph, with the axes being log (rank order) and log (frequency). For example, the word “the” (as described above) would appear at x = log(1), y = log(69971). It is also possible to plot reciprocal rank against frequency or reciprocal frequency or interword interval against rank. The data conform to Zipf’s law to the extent that the plot is linear.
Formally, let:
Zipf’s law then predicts that out of a population of N elements, the frequency of elements of rank k, f(k;s,N), is:
Zipf’s law holds if the number of elements with a given frequency is a random variable with power law distribution
It has been claimed that this representation of Zipf’s law is more suitable for statistical testing, and in this way it has been analyzed in more than 30,000 English texts. The goodness-of-fit tests yield that only about 15% of the texts are statistically compatible with this form of Zipf’s law. Slight variations in the definition of Zipf’s law can increase this percentage up to close to 50%.
In the example of the frequency of words in the English language, N is the number of words in the English language and, if we use the classic version of Zipf’s law, the exponent s is 1. f(k; s,N) will then be the fraction of the time the kth most common word occurs.
The law may also be written:
where HN,s is the Nth generalized harmonic number.
The simplest case of Zipf’s law is a “1⁄f function”. Given a set of Zipfian distributed frequencies, sorted from most common to least common, the second most common frequency will occur ½ as often as the first. The third most common frequency will occur ⅓ as often as the first. The nth most common frequency will occur 1⁄n as often as the first. However, this cannot hold exactly, because items must occur an integer number of times; there cannot be 2.5 occurrences of a word. Nevertheless, over fairly wide ranges, and to a fairly good approximation, many natural phenomena obey Zipf’s law.
Mathematically, the sum of all relative frequencies in a Zipf distribution is equal to the harmonic series, and
In human languages, word frequencies have a very heavy-tailed distribution, and can therefore be modeled reasonably well by a Zipf distribution with an s close to 1.
As long as the exponent s exceeds 1, it is possible for such a law to hold with infinitely many words, since if s > 1 then
where ζ is Riemann’s zeta function.
Although Zipf’s Law holds for most languages, even for non-natural languages like Esperanto, the reason is still not well understood . However, it may be partially explained by the statistical analysis of randomly generated texts. Wentian Li has shown that in a document in which each character has been chosen randomly from a uniform distribution of all letters (plus a space character), the “words” follow the general trend of Zipf’s law (appearing approximately linear on log-log plot). Vitold Belevitch in a paper, On the Statistical Laws of Linguistic Distribution offered a mathematical derivation. He took a large class of well-behaved statistical distributions (not only the normal distribution) and expressed them in terms of rank. He then expanded each expression into a Taylor series. In every case Belevitch obtained the remarkable result that a first-order truncation of the series resulted in Zipf’s law. Further, a second-order truncation of the Taylor series resulted in Mandelbrot’s law.
The principle of least effort is another possible explanation: Zipf himself proposed that neither speakers nor hearers using a given language want to work any harder than necessary to reach understanding, and the process that results in approximately equal distribution of effort leads to the observed Zipf distribution.
Zipf’s law in fact refers more generally to frequency distributions of “rank data,” in which the relative frequency of the nth-ranked item is given by the Zeta distribution, 1/(nsζ(s)), where the parameter s > 1 indexes the members of this family of probability distributions. Indeed, Zipf’s law is sometimes synonymous with “zeta distribution,” since probability distributions are sometimes called “laws”. This distribution is sometimes called the Zipfian or Yule distribution.
A generalization of Zipf’s law is the Zipf–Mandelbrot law, proposed by Benoît Mandelbrot, whose frequencies are:
The “constant” is the reciprocal of the Hurwitz zeta function evaluated at s. In practice, as easily observable in distribution plots for large corpora, the observed distribution can better be modelled as a sum of separate distributions for different subsets or subtypes of words that follow different parameterizations of the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, in particular the closed class of functional words exhibit “s” lower than 1, while open-ended vocabulary growth with document size and corpus size require “s” greater than 1 for convergence of the Generalized Harmonic Series.
Zipfian distributions can be obtained from Pareto distributions by an exchange of variables.
The Zipf distribution is sometimes called the discrete Pareto distribution because it is analogous to the continuous Pareto distribution in the same way that the discrete uniform distribution is analogous to the continuous uniform distribution.
The tail frequencies of the Yule–Simon distribution are approximately
for any choice of ρ > 0.
In the parabolic fractal distribution, the logarithm of the frequency is a quadratic polynomial of the logarithm of the rank. This can markedly improve the fit over a simple power-law relationship. Like fractal dimension, it is possible to calculate Zipf dimension, which is a useful parameter in the analysis of texts.
It has been argued that Benford’s law is a special bounded case of Zipf’s law, with the connection between these two laws being explained by their both originating from scale invariant functional relations from statistical physics and critical phenomena. The ratios of probabilities in Benford’s law are not constant. The leading digits of data satisfying Zipf’s law with s = 1 satisfies Benford’s law.
Primary:
Secondary:
International Conference on Bioinformatics Computational Biology: 2011.

Claytonia lanceolata

Claytonia lanceolata is a species of wildflower in the purslane family known by the common names lanceleaf springbeauty and western springbeauty. This plant is native to western North America as far south as New Mexico where it grows in foothills up to alpine slopes. It thrives in the rocky soil of alpine climates where the snow never melts. It is a perennial herb growing from a tuber one to three centimeters wide. It produces a short, erect stem reaching a maximum height of 15 centimeters. At its smallest the plant bears only its first two rounded leaves before flowering and dying back.Its thick leaves are helpful for storing water. If it continues to grow it produces thick, lance-shaped leaves further up the stem. The star-shaped flowers come in inflorescences of three to 15 blooms and they are white or pink, often with veiny stripes and yellow blotches near the base of each petal. The fruit is a small capsule containing 2 seeds, which are black and shiny. The Okanagon-Colville, Okanagon, and Thompson Native American peoples used the tuber of this plant for food and for animal fodder. There are 28 species of this plant spread across North America and East Asia.

Pierre-Auguste Adet

Pierre-Auguste Adet (* 17. Mai 1763 in Nevers; † 19. März 1834 in Paris) war ein französischer Arzt und Chemiker.

Er studierte Medizin und wurde mit der Dissertation Quaestio medico-chirurgica … An vulneribus & ulceribus succus gastricus? im Jahre 1786 promoviert. Adet war dann zunächst als Arzt tätig. Pierre Auguste Adet wurde der Titel des docteur-régent an der Fakultät für Medizin in Paris, Faculté de médecine de Paris verliehen.
Mit Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier und anderen zusammen begann er an der Erstellung einer chemischen Nomenklatur zu arbeiten und wurde Sekretär der im Jahre 1789 gegründeten wissenschaftlichen Zeitschrift Annales de Chimie. 1787 arbeitete er zusammen mit Jean-Henri Hassenfratz ein System der chemischen Zeichensprache weiter aus, das unter anderem den Aggregatzustand eines Stoffes verdeutlicht. Das System von Adet und Hassenfratz stellte, verglichen mit dem System des französischen Chemikers Étienne François Geoffroy (1672–1731), der für jede chemische Substanz ein eigenes Zeichen konstruierte, einen großen Fortschritt dar. Stellten sie doch einen chemischen Körper als eine Verbindung von Zeichen dar, in der jedem Element ein Zeichen zugeordnet war, ähnlich der Buchstabenschrift im Vergleich zu dem System der Wortschrift von Geoffroy.
So war etwa das Zeichen für Sauerstoff „ – “ und das für Kohlenstoff „ ( “. Somit wurde Kohlensäure mit dem Symbol „ (- “ dargestellt. Bei einigen Elementen wurde schon von ihnen der jeweilige Anfangsbuchstabe für das betreffende Element benutzt, eine Entwicklung die sich letztlich durchsetzten würde. Hierfür steht vor allem Jöns Jakob Berzelius (siehe Abschnitt Chemische Zeichensprache).
Pierre-Auguste Adet wurde als Nachfolger für die Agentur der Minen (agence des mines) des 1794 hingerichteten René Toussaint Daubancourt (1756–1794) eingesetzt. Ferner war er Sekretär des Ministers der Marine und der Kolonien, ministres français de la Marine et des Colonies, und zeitweise Beauftragter für Saint-Domingue. Später, im Jahre 1795, wurde er französischer Botschafter in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. In dieser Position sandte er Georges-Henri-Victor Collot (1750–1805) zu dessen Erkundungen des Ohio River und Mississippi River. Während des amerikanischen Präsidentschaftswahlkampfes im Jahre 1796 nahm er aktiv Partei für Thomas Jefferson. Die diplomatischen Tätigkeiten beendete Adet im Jahre 1797. Ab 1803 war er Präfekt von Nièvre. Im Jahre 1809 war er Mitglied der gesetzgebenden Körperschaft, Corps législatif. Er wurde zum Ritter der Ehrenlegion, Légion d’honneur ernannt, im Jahre 1814 zum Offizier befördert und im Jahre 1808 durch die napoleonische Institution Noblesse d’Empire (siehe hierzu Dotation) zum Ritter des Reichs, chevalier de l’Empire geschlagen.
Er war Gegner der von Georg Ernst Stahl vorgeschlagenen Phlogistontheorie.

Hiroki Ishii

Hiroki Ishii (石井 宏樹, Ishii Hiroki?, born January 16, 1979) is a Japanese lightweight kickboxer. He won the championship of Rajadamnern Stadium in Muay Thai at Super lightweight.
His entrance music is Spente Le Stelle.

On January 23, 2000, he fought against Shingo Takayama’s SNKA Japanese lightweight championship. He won by KO in 2nd round. Ishii defended this title 8 times until 2007.
On November 6, 2004, he fought against Somluck Kamsing from Thailand. The bout was resulted as draw (30-30, 30-30, 30-30) in the end of 3rd round.
On October 2, 2011, Ishii fought against Apisak K.T. Gym for the vacant title of Rajadamnern Stadium championship at super lightweight. He won by the unanimous decision and He became the 5th non-Thai champions of the two stadiums in Muay Thai.
He lost his title to Aikpet Mor. Krongthepthonburi at Magnum 31 in Tokyo on March 10, 2013 when he was knocked out with an elbow in the fourth by the Thai.
He lost to Kaew Fairtex by second round high kick KO for a WPMF super lightweight championship at Rikix: No Kick, No Life 2014 in Tokyo, Japan on February 11, 2014.

Phoenix (German TV station)

Phoenix is a publicly funded television station in Germany which is produced jointly by public broadcasting organizations ARD and ZDF. It broadcasts documentaries, news, special events coverage and discussion programmes. Phoenix’s headquarters are in Bonn, the former West German capital.

Phoenix broadcasts a deaf-subtitled version of the Tagesschau, ARD’s flagship news broadcast, and ZDF’s premier news broadcast Heute-Journal, in German Sign Language.
The channel’s flagship news broadcast is Der Tag (“The Day”), which airs from 11:00 pm to midnight. Its length enables extended reports and interviews to be included.
The show Vor Ort (“On Scene”) includes live coverage of political events, public lectures by important personalities, press conferences and assemblies of the Bundestag and Bundesrat.
Daily talk shows like Phoenix Runde (Phoenix Roundtable) with Pinar Atalay or Alexander Kähler, Unter den Linden with Michaela Kolster or Michael Hirz, discuss current topics with experts or politicians.
As a benchmark in coverage, a “Meet the Press”-like show, Internationaler Frühschoppen is broadcast Sunday at 12 noon when the ARD’s Presseclub is not broadcast.
The series “Historische Debatten” (“Historical Debates”) and “Historische Ereignisse” (“Historical Events”), with journalist Helmut Illert, examine important topics relating to the development of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Phoenix is comparable to the American channel C-SPAN or BBC Parliament, because it also covers government and national politics.
The creation of Phoenix is credited to the former chancellor Helmut Kohl, who wanted to create a “European Parliamentary Channel”. However, the idea was rejected due to criticism by the public channels (ARD and ZDF) and suspicion that political pressure from Kohl could lead to a “Helmut-Kohl-Channel”.
The real idea for “Phoenix – Der Ereignis- und Dokumentationskanal” (“Phoenix – the current affairs and documentary channel”) came from viewers of ARD and ZDF, who wanted a “media-political correction of faults in the system of information transfer”.[clarification needed][citation needed] This created the opportunity to create a “Parliamentary Channel”, with the aim of increasing credibility and satisfying consumer demand.
Private channels (RTL and Sat. 1) criticized the creation of Phoenix because they were at the time creating their own news channels (n-tv and N24 respectively).
The headquarters of Phoenix were provisionally situated in Cologne. However, in 2000, the headquarters were relocated to studios in Bonn.
Phoenix’s highest ratings to date were in August 2006, when it had 1.0% viewer share. With about 4.5 million viewers, it had more viewers than N-TV and N24.
Phoenix’s stated aim is it to create “balance of the shortening of information, which are seen in news and magazines on television”. The programming should be a “truthful illustration of the reality in correspondence with the constitutional order of the publicly-funded broadcast and television stations in Germany”. The target is fulfilled with current reportages and documentaries from the vast archive of ARD and ZDF, as well as international productions from Discovery Channel and the BBC, dubbed into German.